About Brain Cancer

Brain tumors are not rare.  Each year more than a 100,000 Americans will be diagnosed with a primary brain tumor or metastatic (secondary) brain tumor. Being diagnosed with a brain tumor can cause shock, fear, and confusion. For most people, having a brain tumor raises a lot of questions about what to do, where to go, and how to find the most comprehensive care. Dr. Sperduto and his expert team are here to help. From diagnosis to treatment, our experienced, concerned team of experts specializes in the comprehensive care of brain tumors.

The brain is the most important organ in the body.  It controls the five senses as well as the ability to speak and move.  In this section you will find a brief introduction to: brain anatomy, brain tumors, the diagnosis of brain tumors, and a description of the different types of brain tumors.

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BRAIN ANATOMY 

Central Nervous System (CNS): Your CNS consists of the brain and spinal cord.
Brain Stem: Connects your brain with your spinal cord and controls your breathing and heart rate.

Cerebral Cortex: Involved in your thinking, learning and speaking activities.

Cerebellum: Like a mini-brain within your brain, your cerebellum allows you to carry out skilled, complicated movements, including balance.

Cerebrospinal fluid: Protects your brain and spinal cord by acting as a shock absorber.

Cerebrum: The largest and uppermost portion of your brain. It consists of the right and left hemispheres, which control thoughts and conscious action.

Corpus Callosum: Connects the two hemispheres of your brain and allows both sides to communicate. For example, when your right hand holds an object, your left hand knows it.

Hypothalamus: Regulates areas for thirst, hunger, body temperature, water balance, blood pressure and links the nervous system to the endocrine system.

Thalamus: Egg-shaped area that helps you process and recognize information about touch, pain, temperature and pressure on your skin.


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BRAIN TUMORS

What is a brain tumor?


A brain tumor is an abnormal growth of tissue in the brain. The tumor can be either a primary tumor which originates in the brain itself, or a secondary tumor which comes from another part of the body and travels to the brain (metastasize). Brain tumors may be classified as either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous), depending on their behavior.

A benign primary brain tumor does not contain cancer cells and usually, once removed, does not recur. Most benign brain tumors have clear borders, meaning they do not invade surrounding tissue. These tumors can, however, cause symptoms similar to cancerous tumors because of their size and location in the brain.

Malignant primary brain tumors contain cancer cells. Malignant brain tumors are usually fast growing and invade surrounding tissue. Malignant brain tumors very rarely spread to other areas of the body, but may recur after treatment. Sometimes, brain tumors that are not cancer are called malignant because of their size and location, and the damage they can do to vital functions of the brain.

Metastatic brain tumors (secondary)  are tumors that begin to grow in another part of the body, then spread to the brain through the bloodstream. Common types of cancer that can travel to the brain include lung cancer, breast cancer, melanoma (a type of skin cancer), and colon cancer. All of these cancers are considered malignant
What are the signs of brain tumors?

Unfortunately, the very early stages of brain tumors may not cause any symptoms.  As the tumor grows in size, it can produce a variety of symptoms, including:

  • headache
  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • loss of appetite
  • seizures
  • memory loss
  • weakness
  • visual changes
  • problems with speech and language
  • personality changes
  • thought processing problems

Many of these symptoms are non-specific, and could represent a variety of different conditions. Always consult your physician for a diagnosis.

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How is a brain tumor diagnosed?

In addition to a complete medical history and physical examination, diagnostic procedures for brain tumors may include the following:

  • neurological examination - your physician tests reflexes, muscle strength, eye and mouth movement, coordination, and alertness.
  • computed tomography scan (Also called a CT or CAT scan.) - a diagnostic imaging procedure that uses a combination of x-rays and computer technology to produce cross-sectional images (often called slices), both horizontally and vertically, of the body. A CT scan shows detailed images of any part of the body, including the bones, muscles, fat, and organs. CT scans are more detailed than general x-rays.
  • magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) - a diagnostic procedure that uses a combination of large magnets, radiofrequencies, and a computer to produce detailed images of organs and structures within the body.
  • x-ray - a diagnostic test which uses invisible electromagnetic energy beams to produce images of internal tissues, bones, and organs onto film.
  • bone scan - pictures or x-rays taken of the bone after a dye has been injected that is absorbed by bone tissue. These are used to detect tumors and bone abnormalities.
  • arteriogram (Also called an angiogram.) - an x-ray of the arteries and veins to detect blockage or narrowing of the vessels.
  • myelogram - a procedure that uses dye injected into the spinal canal to make the structure clearly visible on x-rays.
  • spinal tap (Also called a lumbar puncture.) - a special needle is placed into the lower back, into the spinal canal. This is the area around the spinal cord. The pressure in the spinal canal and brain can then be measured. A small amount of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) can be removed and sent for testing to determine if there is an infection or other problems. CSF is the fluid that bathes the brain and spinal cord.
Diagnosis of a brain tumor depends mostly on the types of cells involved and the tumor location.

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    What are the different types of brain tumors?

    There are many different types of brain tumors. They are usually categorized by the type of cell where the tumor begins, or they are also categorized by the area of the brain where they occur. The most common types of brain tumors include the following:

    • Gliomas
      The most common type of primary brain tumor is a glioma. Gliomas begin from glial cells, which are the supportive tissue of the brain. There are several types of gliomas, categorized by where they are found, and the type of cells that originated the tumor. The following are the different types of gliomas:
      • Astrocytomas
        Astrocytomas are glial cell tumors that are derived from connective tissue cells called astrocytes. These cells can be found anywhere in the brain or spinal cord. Astrocytomas are the most common type of childhood brain tumor, and the most common type of primary brain tumor in adults. Astrocytomas are generally subdivided into high-grade or low-grade tumors. High-grade astrocytomas are the most malignant of all brain tumors. Astrocytomas are further classified for presenting signs, symptoms, treatment, and prognosis, based on the location of the tumor. The most common location of these tumors in children is in the cerebellum, where they are called cerebellar astrocytomas. These persons usually have symptoms of increased intracranial pressure, headache, and vomiting. There can also be problems with walking and coordination, as well as double vision. In adults, astrocytomas are more common in the cerebral hemispheres (cerebrum), where they commonly cause increased intracranial pressure (ICP), seizures, or changes in behavior.
      • Brain stem gliomas
        Brain stem gliomas are tumors found in the brain stem. Most brain stem tumors cannot be surgically removed because of the remote location and delicate and complex function this area controls. Brain stem gliomas occur almost exclusively in children; the group most often affected is the school-age child. The child usually does not have increased intracranial pressure (ICP), but may have problems with double vision, movement of the face or one side of the body, or difficulty with walking and coordination.
      • Ependymomas
        Ependymomas are also glial cell tumors. They usually develop in the lining of the ventricles or in the spinal cord. The most common place they are found in children is near the cerebellum. The tumor often blocks the flow of the CSF (cerebral spinal fluid, which bathes the brain and spinal cord), causing increased intracranial pressure. This type of tumor mostly occurs in children younger than 10 years of age. Ependymomas can be slow growing, compared to other brain tumors, but may recur after treatment is completed. Recurrence of ependymomas results in a more invasive tumor with more resistance to treatment.
      • Optic nerve gliomas
        Optic nerve gliomas are found in or around the nerves that send messages from the eyes to the brain. They are frequently found in persons who have neurofibromatosis, a condition a child is born with that makes him/her more likely to develop tumors in the brain. Persons usually experience loss of vision, as well as hormone problems, since these tumors are usually located at the base of the brain where hormonal control is located. These are typically difficult to treat due to the surrounding sensitive brain structures.
      • Oligodendrogliomas
        This type of tumor also arises from the supporting cells of the brain. They are found commonly in the cerebral hemispheres (cerebrum). Seizures are a very common symptom of these tumors, as well as headache, weakness, or changes in behavior or sleepiness. This tumor is more common in persons in their 40s and 50s. These tumors have a better prognosis than most other gliomas, but they can become more malignant with time.
    • Metastatic tumors
      In adults, metastatic brain tumors are the most common type of brain tumors. These are tumors that begin to grow in another part of the body, then spread to the brain through the bloodstream. When the tumors spread to the brain, they commonly go to the part of the brain called the cerebral hemispheres, or to the cerebellum. Often, a patient may have multiple metastatic tumors in several different areas of the brain. Lung, breast, and colon cancers frequently travel to the brain, as do certain skin cancers. Metastatic brain tumors may be quite aggressive and may return even after surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy.
    • Meningiomas
      Meningiomas are usually benign tumors that come from the meninges or dura, which is the tough outer covering of the brain just under the skull. This type of tumor accounts for about 15 percent of brain tumors. They are slow growing and may exist for years before being detected. Meningiomas are most common in patients in their 40s and 50s. They are commonly found in the cerebral hemispheres just under the skull. They usually are separate from the brain and can sometimes be removed entirely during surgery. They can, however, recur after surgery and certain types can be malignant.
    • Schwannomas
      Schwannomas are benign tumors, similar to meningiomas. They arise from the supporting cells of the nerves leaving the brain, and are most common on the nerves that control hearing and balance. When schwannomas involve these nerves, they are called vestibular schwannomas or acoustic neuromas. Commonly, they present with loss of hearing, and occasionally loss of balance, or problems with weakness on one side of the face. Surgery can be difficult because of the area of the brain in which they occur, and the vital structures around the tumor. Occasionally, radiation (or a combination of surgery and radiation) is used to treat these tumors.
    • Pituitary tumors
      The pituitary gland is a gland located at the base of the brain. It produces hormones that control many other glands in the body. These glands include the thyroid gland, the adrenal glands, the ovaries and testes, as well as milk production by pregnant women, and fluid balance by the kidney. Tumors that occur in or around the area of the pituitary gland can affect the functioning of the gland, or overproduce hormones that are sent to the other glands. This can lead to problems with thyroid functioning, impotence, milk production from the breasts, irregular menstrual periods, or problems regulating the fluid balance in the body. In addition, due to the closeness of the pituitary to the nerves to the eyes, patients may have decreased vision.
      Tumors in the pituitary are frequently benign, and total removal makes the tumors less likely to recur. Since the pituitary is at the base of the skull, approaches for removal of a pituitary tumor may involve entry through the nose or the upper gum. Certain types of tumors may be treated with medication, which, in some cases, can shrink the tumor or stop the growth of the tumor.
    • Primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET)
      PNET can occur anywhere in the brain, although the most common place is in the back of the brain near the cerebellum. When they occur here, they are called medulloblastomas. The symptoms depend on their location in the brain, but typically the patient experiences increased intracranial pressure. These tumors are fast growing and often malignant, with occasional spreading throughout the brain or spinal cord.
    • Medulloblastomas
      Medulloblastomas are one type of PNET that are found near the midline of the cerebellum. This tumor is rapidly growing and often blocks drainage of the CSF (cerebral spinal fluid, which bathes the brain and spinal cord), causing symptoms associated with increased ICP. Medulloblastoma cells can spread (metastasize) to other areas of the central nervous system, especially around the spinal cord. A combination of surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy is usually necessary to control these tumors.
    • Craniopharyngioma
      Craniopharyngioma are benign tumors that occur at the base of the brain near the nerves from the eyes to the brain, and the hormone centers. Most persons with this type of brain tumor develop symptoms before the age of 20. Symptoms include headaches, as well as problems with vision. Hormonal imbalances are common, including poor growth and short stature. Symptoms of increased intracranial pressure may also be seen. Although these tumors are benign, they are hard to remove due to the sensitive brain structures that surround them.
    • Pineal region tumors
      Many different tumors can arise near the pineal gland, a gland that helps control sleep and wake cycles. Gliomas are common in this region, as are pineal blastomas. In addition, germ cell tumors, another form of malignant tumor, can be found in this area. Tumors in this region are more common in children than adults, and make up 3 to 8 percent of pediatric brain tumors. Benign pineal gland cysts are also seen in this location, which makes the diagnosis difficult between what is malignant and what is benign. Biopsy or removal of the tumor is frequently necessary to tell the different types of tumors apart. Persons with tumors in this region frequently experience headaches or symptoms of increased intracranial pressure. Treatment depends on the tumor type and size.

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